Advertisement

Effects of seasonal variation and winter supplementation of ground whole flaxseed on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows in organic farms in the northeastern United States

      ABSTRACT

      Fourteen organic dairy farms in the northeastern United States were used to evaluate (1) seasonal variation in bioactive milk fatty acid (FA) profile from 2012 to 2015 and (2) supplementation of ground whole flaxseed (GFLX) to maintain elevated concentrations of bioactive milk FA during the nongrazing season. During regular farm visits, milk, feed, and pasture samples were collected, and diet composition, milk yield, and milk composition were recorded. During winters of 2013 to 2014 and 2014 to 2015, 9 farms supplemented GFLX at 6% of diet DM to half of each herd (n = 238 cows per treatment). Milk samples were collected and pooled by treatment (GFLX or control). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. A significant month × year interaction (P < 0.05) for n-3 FA showed an increase beginning in April of 2014 through the end of the study. The proportion of conjugated linoleic acid showed a seasonal pattern with greatest (P < 0.05) concentrations (1.32% of total milk FA) during the grazing season. Winter GFLX supplementation did not affect (P > 0.15) milk yield or concentrations of milk fat or protein; however, BCS tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for GFLX cows. Compared with the control diet, GFLX decreased (P < 0.05) total milk SFA by 3.1 percentage units and increased (P < 0.05) n-3 by 62% and total conjugated linoleic acid proportion by 9%. Although GFLX supplementation increased milk n-3, lesser effects on SFA and total conjugated linoleic acid proportions indicated that a greater level of winter supplementation is required to improve overall milk FA profile during the nongrazing season.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      LITERATURE CITED

        • Al-Mabruk R.M.
        • Beck N.F.J.
        • Dewhurst R.J.
        Effects of silage species and supplemental vitamin E on the oxidative stability of milk..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73180-X
        14762084
        J. Dairy Sci. 2004; 87: 406-412
        • Bargo F.
        • Delahoy J.E.
        • Schroeder G.F.
        • Baumgard L.H.
        • Muller L.D.
        Supplementing total mixed rations with pasture increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid in milk..
        10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.04.017
        Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2006; 131: 226-240
        • Bauman D.E.
        • Lock A.L.
        Conjugated linoleic acid: Biosynthesis and nutritional significance.
        (3rd ed.)in: Fox P.F. McSweeney P.L.H. Pages 93–136 in Advanced Dairy Chemistry. Vol. 2: Lipids. Springer, New York, NY2006
        • Benbrook C.M.
        • Butler G.
        • Latif M.A.
        • Leifert C.
        • Davis D.R.
        Organic production enhances milk nutritional quality by shifting fatty acid composition: A United States–wide, 18-month study..
        10.1371/journal.pone.0082429
        24349282
        PLoS One. 2013; 8 (e82429)
        • Benbrook C.M.
        • Davis D.R.
        • Heins B.J.
        • Latif M.A.
        • Leifert C.
        • Peterman L.
        • Butler G.
        • Faergeman O.
        • Abel-Caines S.
        • Baranski M.
        Enhancing the fatty acid profile of milk through forage-based rations, with nutrition modeling of diet outcomes..
        10.1002/fsn3.610
        29876120
        Food Sci. Nutr. 2018; 6: 681-700
        • Boufaïed H.
        • Chouinard P.Y.
        • Tremblay G.F.
        • Petit H.V.
        • Michaud R.
        • Belanger G.
        Fatty acids in forages. I. Factors affecting concentrations..
        10.4141/A02-098
        Can. J. Anim. Sci. 2003; 83: 501-511
        • Brito A.F.
        • Petit H.V.
        • Pereira A.B.D.
        • Soder K.J.
        • Ross S.
        Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets..
        10.3168/jds.2014-8353
        25465544
        J. Dairy Sci. 2015; 98: 443-457
        • Brito A.F.
        • Soder K.J.
        • Chouinard P.Y.
        • Reis S.F.
        • Ross S.
        • Rubano M.D.
        • Casler M.D.
        Production performance and milk fatty acid profile in grazing dairy cows offered ground corn or liquid molasses as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source..
        10.3168/jds.2017-12618
        28780091
        J. Dairy Sci. 2017; 100: 8146-8160
        • Brossillon V.
        • Reis S.F.
        • Moura D.C.
        • Galvão Jr., J.G.B.
        • Oliveira A.S.
        • Côrtes C.
        • Brito A.F.
        Production performance, milk and plasma fatty acid profile, and nutrient utilization in Jersey cows fed flaxseed oil and corn grain with different particle size..
        10.3168/jds.2017-13478
        29274984
        J. Dairy Sci. 2018; 101: 2127-2143
        • Butler G.
        • Stergiadis S.
        • Seal C.
        • Eyre M.
        • Leifert C.
        Fat composition of organic and conventional retail milk in northeast England..
        10.3168/jds.2010-3331
        21183013
        J. Dairy Sci. 2011; 94: 24-36
        • Chilliard Y.
        • Ferlay A.
        • Mansbridge R.
        • Doreau M.
        Ruminant milk fat plasticity: Nutritional control of saturated, polyunsaturated, trans and conjugated fatty acids..
        10/1051/animres:2000117
        Ann. Zootech. 2000; 49: 181-205
        • Collomb M.
        • Sieber R.
        • Bütikofer U.
        CLA isomers in milk fat from cows fed diets with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids..
        15357023
        Lipids. 2004; 39: 355-364
        • Dewhurst R.J.
        • Fisher W.J.
        • Tweed J.K.S.
        • Wilkins R.J.
        Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73855-7
        12939084
        J. Dairy Sci. 2003; 86: 2598-2611
        • Dhiman T.R.
        • Helmink E.D.
        • McMahon D.J.
        • Fife R.L.
        • Pariza M.W.
        Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75247-1
        10068962
        J. Dairy Sci. 1999; 82: 412-419
        • Dilzer A.
        • Park Y.
        Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health..
        10.1080/10408398.2010.501409
        22452730
        Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2012; 52: 488-513
        • Elgersma A.
        • Tamminga S.
        • Ellen G.
        Comparison of the effects of grazing and zero-grazing of grass on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows..
        Grassl. Sci. Eur. 2003; 8: 271-274
        • Flowers G.
        • Ibrahim S.A.
        • AbuGhazaleh A.A.
        Milk fatty acid composition of grazing dairy cows when supplemented with linseed oil..
        10.3168/jds.2007-0410
        18218760
        J. Dairy Sci. 2008; 91: 722-730
        • Givens D.
        Impact on CVD risk of modifying milk fat to decrease intake of SFA and increase intake of cis-MUFA..
        18847519
        Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2008; 67: 419-427
        • Hafla A.N.
        • Soder K.J.
        • Brito A.F.
        • Kersbergen R.
        • Benson F.
        • Darby H.
        • Rubano M.
        • Reis S.
        Case Study: Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of dairy cows in the northeastern United States..
        10.15232/pas.2015-01500
        Prof. Anim. Sci. 2016; 32: 523-530
        • Hafla A.N.
        • Soder K.J.
        • Hautau M.
        • Rubano M.D.
        • Moyer B.
        • Stout R.
        Case study: Dairies using self-described ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York..
        10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30129-7
        Prof. Anim. Sci. 2014; 30: 366-374
        • Harvatine K.J.
        • Boisclair Y.R.
        • Bauman D.E.
        Recent advances in the regulation of milk fat synthesis..
        10.1017/S1751731108003133
        22444171
        Animal. 2009; 3: 40-54
        • Hristov A.N.
        • Domitrovich C.
        • Wachter A.
        • Cassidy T.
        • Lee C.
        • Shingfield K.J.
        • Kairenius P.
        • Davis J.
        • Brown J.
        Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows..
        10.3168/jds.2011-4283
        21787941
        J. Dairy Sci. 2011; 94: 4057-4074
        • Huth P.J.
        • DiRienzo D.B.
        • Miller G.D.
        Major scientific advances with dairy foods in nutrition and health..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72190-7
        16537954
        J. Dairy Sci. 2006; 89: 1207-1221
        • Khan N.A.
        • Tewoldebrhan T.A.
        • Zom R.L.G.
        • Cone J.W.
        • Hendriks W.H.
        Effect of corn silage harvest maturity and concentrate type on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows..
        10.3168/jds.2011-4701
        22365229
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 1472-1483
        • Larsen M.K.
        • Nielsen J.H.
        • Butler G.
        • Keifert C.
        • Slots T.
        • Kristiansen G.H.
        • Gustafsson A.H.
        Milk quality as affected by feeding regimens in a country with climatic variation..
        10.3168/jds.2009-2953
        20630203
        J. Dairy Sci. 2010; 93: 2863-2873
        • Lerch S.
        • Ferlay A.
        • Shingfield K.J.
        • Martin B.
        • Pomies D.
        • Chilliard Y.
        Rapeseed or linseed supplements in grass-based diets. Effects on milk fatty acid composition of Holstein cows over two consecutive lactations..
        10.3168/jds.2012-5337
        22916928
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 5221-5241
        • Li Y.
        • Hruby A.
        • Bernstein A.M.
        • Key S.H.
        • Wang D.D.
        • Chiuve S.E.
        • Sampson L.
        • Rexrode K.M.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Hu F.B.
        Saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective cohort study..
        10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.055
        26429077
        J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2015; 66: 1538-1548
        • Lock A.L.
        • Bauman D.E.
        Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health..
        10.1007/s11745-004-1348-6
        15736916
        Lipids. 2004; 39: 1197-1206
        • Loor J.J.
        • Ueda K.
        • Ferlay A.
        • Chilliard Y.
        • Doreau M.
        Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), in response to dietary forage:concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73372-X
        15328271
        J. Dairy Sci. 2004; 87: 2472-2485
        • Mackle T.R.
        • Bryant A.M.
        • Petch S.F.
        • Hill J.P.
        • Auldist M.J.
        Nutritional influences on the composition of milk from cows of different protein phenotypes in New Zealand..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75221-5
        10022019
        J. Dairy Sci. 1999; 82: 172-180
        • Mir P.S.
        • Bittman S.
        • Hunt D.
        • Entz T.
        • Yip B.
        Lipid content and fatty acid composition of grasses sampled on different dates through the early part of the growing season..
        10.4141/A05-050
        Can. J. Anim. Sci. 2006; 86: 279-290
        • NRC
        Diet and health: Implications for reducing chronic disease risk.
        Page 750 in Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC1989
        • NRC
        Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.
        7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC2001
        • Palmquist D.L.
        • Beaulieu A.D.
        • Barbano D.M.
        Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77508-6
        8326036
        J. Dairy Sci. 1993; 76: 1753-1771
        • Pereira A.B.D.
        • Brito A.F.
        • Townson L.L.
        • Townson D.H.
        Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States..
        10.3168/jds.2013-6690
        24054299
        J. Dairy Sci. 2013; 96: 7340-7348
        • Resende T.L.
        • Kraft J.
        • Soder K.J.
        • Pereira A.B.D.
        • Woitschach D.E.
        • Reis R.B.
        • Brito A.F.
        Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets..
        10.3168/jds.2014-9115
        25958281
        J. Dairy Sci. 2015; 98: 4785-4799
        • Rico D.E.
        • Harvatine K.J.
        Induction of and recovery from milk fat depression occurs progressively in dairy cows switched between diets that differ in fiber and oil concentration..
        10.3168/jds.2013-6820
        23958016
        J. Dairy Sci. 2013; 96: 6621-6630
        • Schroeder G.F.
        • Delahoy J.E.
        • Vidaurreta I.
        • Bargo F.
        • Gagliostro G.A.
        • Muller L.D.
        Milk fatty acid composition of cows fed a total mixed ration or pasture plus concentrates replacing corn with fat..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73927-7
        14594244
        J. Dairy Sci. 2003; 86: 3237-3248
        • Schroeder G.F.
        • Gagliostro G.A.
        • Bargo F.
        • Delahoy J.E.
        • Muller L.D.
        Effects of fat supplementation on milk production and composition by dairy cows on pasture: A review..
        10.1016/S0301-6226(03)00118-0
        Livest. Prod. Sci. 2004; 86: 1-18
        • Simopoulos A.P.
        Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases..
        12480795
        J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2002; 21: 495-505
        • Soder K.J.
        • Brito A.F.
        • Rubano M.D.
        • Dell C.J.
        Effect of incremental flaxseed supplementation of an herbage diet on methane output and ruminal fermentation in continuous culture..
        10.3168/jds.2011-4981
        22720950
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 3961-3969
        • Soder K.J.
        • Muller L.D.
        Case study: Use of partial total mixed rations on pasture-based dairy farms in Pennsylvania and New York..
        10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30978-5
        Prof. Anim. Sci. 2007; 23: 300-307
        • Soder K.J.
        • Sanderson M.A.
        • Stack J.L.
        • Muller L.D.
        Intake and performance of lactating cows grazing diverse forage mixtures..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72286-X
        16702282
        J. Dairy Sci. 2006; 89: 2158-2167
        • Stergiadis S.
        • Leifert C.
        • Seal C.J.
        • Eyre M.D.
        • Steinshamn H.
        • Butler G.
        Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation..
        10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.021
        24996337
        Food Chem. 2014; 164: 293-300
        • Sukhija P.S.
        • Palmquist D.L.
        Rapid method for determination of total fatty acid content and composition of feedstuffs and feces..
        10.1021/jf00084a019
        J. Agric. Food Chem. 1988; 36: 1202-1206
        • Temme E.H.
        • Mensink R.P.
        • Hornstra G.
        Comparison of the effects of diets enriched in lauric, palmitic, or oleic acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women and men..
        10.1093/ajcn/63.6.897
        8644684
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 63: 897-903
        • Thomson N.A.
        • Van Der Poel W.
        Seasonal variation of the fatty acid composition of milk fat from Friesian cows grazing pasture..
        10.1093/ajcn/76.3.504
        N. Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 2000; 60: 314-317
        • Turpeinen A.M.
        • Mutanen M.
        • Aro A.
        • Salminen I.
        • Basu S.
        • Palmquist D.L.
        • Griinari J.M.
        Bioconversion of vaccenic acid to conjugated linoleic acid in humans..
        12197992
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 76: 504-510
        • USDA-AMS
        National Organic Program: Access to Pasture (Livestock).
        7 CFR Part 205, Doc. No. AMS-TM-06–0198; TM-05–14FR. RIN 0581–AC57. USDA-Agric. Market. Serv., Washington, DC2010
        • Wildman E.E.
        • Jones G.M.
        • Wagner P.E.
        • Boman R.L.
        • Troutt Jr., H.F.
        • Lesch T.N.
        A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selection production characteristics..
        10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82223-6
        J. Dairy Sci. 1982; 65: 495-501
        • Wyss U.
        • Munger A.
        • Collomb M.
        Variation of fatty acid content in grass and milk during the grazing season..
        Grassl. Sci. Eur. 2010; 15: 422-424