Advertisement

Feeding a branded, modified wet corn gluten feed to lactating dairy cows: A meta-regression approach

      ABSTRACT

      Objective

      Our objectives were to identify optimal dietary inclusion for Sweet Bran (SB; Cargill Inc.), a branded, modified wet corn gluten feed product, and determine whether there are other important factors to consider when feeding SB to lactating dairy cattle.

      Materials and Methods

      Experiments where at least 2 SB concentrations were investigated (n = 12; 50 treatment means) were compiled into a database for meta-regression analysis. Experiments were screened to ensure they reported nutrient and ingredient composition of treatments and milk yield and milk component responses. The meta-regression was conducted using lmer and step functions of the lmerTest package within R (v 4.0.2).

      Results and Discussion

      Dietary SB interacted with NDF concentration such that greater SB inclusion was associated with increased DMI, but the magnitude of this effect declined with increasing dietary NDF concentration. Milk fat percentage and protein yield were affected by an interaction between dietary forage NDF (fNDF) and SB; increasing fNDF when feeding greater SB inclusions had positive effects on milk fat concentration but negative effects on milk protein yield. Milk fat and protein yield were optimized at 26 and 11% SB inclusion, respectively.

      Implications and Applications

      Sweet Bran supports increased DMI and milk fat yield when included at 20 to 40% of diet DM, but total diet NDF must be controlled. Results also suggest that moderate fNDF when feeding SB is important. Too little fNDF reduces milk fat percentage, whereas too much reduces protein yield. Finally, feeding greater SB concentrations reduced milk protein yield, suggesting the need to focus on AA balancing.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      LITERATURE CITED

        • Allen D.M.
        • Grant R.J.
        Interactions between forage and wet corn gluten feed as sources of fiber in diets for lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74882-X
        10714868
        J. Dairy Sci. 2000; 83: 322-331
        • Anderson J.
        • Schingoethe D.
        • Kalscheur K.
        • Hippen A.
        Evaluation of dried and wet distillers grains included at two concentrations in the diets of lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72587-5
        16840630
        J. Dairy Sci. 2006; 89: 3133-3142
        • Boddugari K.
        • Grant R.J.
        • Stock R.
        • Lewis M.
        Maximal replacement of forage and concentrate with a new wet corn milling product for lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74545-6
        11352164
        J. Dairy Sci. 2001; 84: 873-884
      1. Bradford, B. J., and A. J. Carpenter. 2017. Utilization of by-product and co-product feeds. Pages 739–750 in Large Dairy Herd Management. 3rd ed. D. K. Beede, ed. Am. Dairy Sci. Assoc. https://doi.org/10.3168/ldhm.0854.

        • Bradford B.J.
        • Mullins C.R.
        Invited review: Strategies for promoting productivity and health of dairy cattle by feeding nonforage fiber sources..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5393
        22916877
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 4735-4746
      2. Brouk, M. J., J. F. Smith, and K. N. Grigsby. 2006. Responses of lactating Holstein cows to increasing amounts of wet corn gluten feed. Pages 14–17 in Dairy Research 2006. Kansas State Univ.

        • Cook R.D.
        Detection of influential observation in linear regression..
        https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.1977.10489493
        Technometrics. 1977; 19: 15-18
        • Dado R.G.
        • Allen M.S.
        Intake limitations, feeding behavior, and rumen function of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inert bulk..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76622-X
        7738249
        J. Dairy Sci. 1995; 78: 118-133
        • Darabighane B.
        • Mirzaei Aghjehgheshlagh F.
        • Mahdavi A.
        • Navidshad B.
        • Bernard J.K.
        Effects of inclusion of corn gluten feed in dairy rations on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, and ruminal fermentation parameters: A meta-analysis..
        https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02261-2
        32170651
        Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 2020; 52: 2359-2369
        • Easterbrook P.J.
        • Gopalan R.
        • Berlin J.A.
        • Matthews D.R.
        Publication bias in clinical research..
        https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)90201-Y
        1672966
        Lancet. 1991; 337: 867-872
      3. Fanning, K. 2010. Cattle Nutrition: Feeding Coproducts: Fact versus Myth. Accessed Nov. 30, 2020. https://www.agweb.com/article/cattle_nutrition_feeding_coproducts_fact_versus_myth.

        • Gehman A.M.
        • Kononoff P.J.
        Nitrogen utilization, nutrient digestibility, and excretion of purine derivatives in dairy cattle consuming rations containing corn milling co-products..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2598
        20655434
        J. Dairy Sci. 2010; 93: 3641-3651
      4. Giridhar, K., and A. Samireddypalle. 2015. Impact of climate change on forage availability for livestock. Pages 97–112 in Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation. V. Sejian, J. Gaughan, L. Baumgard, and C. Prasad, ed. Springer India.

        • Herrick K.J.
        • Hippen A.R.
        • Kalscheur K.F.
        • Schingoethe D.J.
        • Casper D.P.
        • Moreland S.C.
        • van Eys J.E.
        Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11634
        27837980
        J. Dairy Sci. 2017; 100: 757-768
        • Izumi K.
        • Fukumori R.
        • Oikawa S.
        • Oba M.
        Short communication: Effects of butyrate supplementation on the productivity of lactating dairy cows fed diets differing in starch content..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17113
        31629511
        J. Dairy Sci. 2019; 102: 11051-11056
        • Karlsson J.
        • Spörndly R.
        • Lindberg M.
        • Holtenius K.
        Replacing human-edible feed ingredients with by-products increases net food production efficiency in dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14209
        29753487
        J. Dairy Sci. 2018; 101: 7146-7155
        • Kononoff P.J.
        • Heinrichs A.
        • Buckmaster D.
        Modification of the Penn state forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73773-4
        12778598
        J. Dairy Sci. 2003; 86: 1858-1863
        • Kononoff P.J.
        • Ivan S.K.
        • Klopfenstein T.J.
        Estimation of the proportion of feed protein digested in the small intestine of cattle consuming wet corn gluten feed..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-552
        17430941
        J. Dairy Sci. 2007; 90: 2377-2385
        • Kononoff P.J.
        • Ivan S.K.
        • Matzke W.
        • Grant R.J.
        • Stock R.A.
        • Klopfenstein T.J.
        Milk production of dairy cows fed wet corn gluten feed during the dry period and lactation..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72338-4
        16772581
        J. Dairy Sci. 2006; 89: 2608-2617
        • Li C.
        • Beauchemin K.A.
        • Yang W.
        Feeding diets varying in forage proportion and particle length to lactating dairy cows: I. Effects on ruminal Ph and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility, and milk production..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17606
        32197848
        J. Dairy Sci. 2020; 103: 4340-4354
        • Morris D.L.
        • Brown-Brandl T.M.
        • Hales K.E.
        • Harvatine K.J.
        • Kononoff P.J.
        Effects of high-starch or high-fat diets formulated to be isoenergetic on energy and nitrogen partitioning and utilization in lactating jersey cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17638
        32197845
        J. Dairy Sci. 2020; 103: 4378-4389
        • Mullins C.R.
        • Grigsby K.N.
        • Anderson D.E.
        • Titgemeyer E.C.
        • Bradford B.J.
        Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3310
        20965349
        J. Dairy Sci. 2010; 93: 5329-5337
        • Mullins C.R.
        • Weber D.
        • Block E.
        • Smith J.F.
        • Brouk M.J.
        • Bradford B.J.
        Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6755
        23746581
        J. Dairy Sci. 2013; 96: 5300-5305
        • Mulrooney C.N.
        • Schingoethe D.J.
        • Kalscheur K.F.
        • Hippen A.R.
        Canola meal replacing distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2276
        19841226
        J. Dairy Sci. 2009; 92: 5669-5676
      5. NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2016. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 8th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press.

        • Osorio J.S.
        • Lohakare J.
        • Bionaz M.
        Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: Roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation..
        https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00016.2015
        26812986
        Physiol. Genomics. 2016; 48: 231-256
        • Overton T.R.
        • Emmert L.S.
        • Clark J.H.
        Effects of source of carbohydrate and protein and rumen-protected methionine on performance of cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75569-9
        9493097
        J. Dairy Sci. 1998; 81: 221-228
        • Paz H.A.
        • Klopfenstein T.J.
        • Hostetler D.
        • Fernando S.C.
        • Castillo-Lopez E.
        • Kononoff P.J.
        Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in high-protein feedstuffs commonly used in dairy diets..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8108
        25108871
        J. Dairy Sci. 2014; 97: 6485-6498
        • Ranathunga S.D.
        • Kalscheur K.F.
        • Anderson J.L.
        • Herrick K.J.
        Production of dairy cows fed distillers dried grains with solubles in low- and high-forage diets..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14258
        30292550
        J. Dairy Sci. 2018; 101: 10886-10898
        • Rezac D.J.
        • Grigsby K.N.
        • Bello N.M.
        • Bradford B.J.
        Effects of varying rates of tallgrass prairie hay and wet corn gluten feed on productivity of lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4752
        22281347
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 842-849
        • Roman-Garcia Y.
        • White R.R.
        • Firkins J.L.
        Meta-analysis of postruminal microbial nitrogen flows in dairy cattle. I. Derivation of equations..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10661
        27448861
        J. Dairy Sci. 2016; 99: 7918-7931
      6. Sanchez-Duarte, J. I. 2017. Response of dairy cows to dietary starch concentrations: Performance, nutrient digestion, and gas emissions. PhD Diss. Dept. Dairy Sci., South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD.

        • Sauvant D.
        • Letourneau-Montminy M.P.
        • Schmidely P.
        • Boval M.
        • Loncke C.
        • Daniel J.B.
        Review: Use and misuse of meta-analysis in animal science..
        https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731120001688
        Animal. 2020; 14: s207-s222
        • Sauvant D.
        • Schmidely P.
        • Daudin J.J.
        • St-Pierre N.R.
        Meta-analyses of experimental data in animal nutrition..
        https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108002280
        Animal. 2008; 2: 1203-1214
        • Schingoethe D.J.
        • Kalscheur K.F.
        • Hippen A.R.
        • Garcia A.D.
        Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2549
        19923586
        J. Dairy Sci. 2009; 92: 5802-5813
        • Schmidt F.L.
        Statistical and measurement pitfalls in the use of meta-regression in meta-analysis..
        https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-08-2017-0136
        Career Dev. Int. 2017; 22: 469-476
        • Shepherd D.M.
        • Firkins J.L.
        • VonBehren P.
        Chewing, rumen pool characteristics, and lactation performance of dairy cows fed 2 concentrations of a corn wet-milling coproduct with different forage sources..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8169
        24996267
        J. Dairy Sci. 2014; 97: 5786-5799
        • St-Pierre N.R.
        Invited review: Integrating quantitative findings from multiple studies using mixed model methodology..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74530-4
        11352149
        J. Dairy Sci. 2001; 84: 741-755
        • Storm A.C.
        • Hanigan M.D.
        • Kristensen N.B.
        Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-4091
        21787934
        J. Dairy Sci. 2011; 94: 3980-3994
        • Sullivan M.L.
        • Grigsby K.N.
        • Bradford B.J.
        Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal ph and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5320
        22916927
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 5213-5220
        • Swanepoel N.
        • Robinson P.H.
        • Erasmus L.J.
        Determining the optimal ratio of canola meal and high protein dried distillers grain protein in diets of high producing Holstein dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.12.007
        Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2014; 189: 41-53
        • Takiya C.S.
        • Ylioja C.M.
        • Bennett A.
        • Davidson M.J.
        • Sudbeck M.
        • Wickersham T.A.
        • VandeHaar M.J.
        • Bradford B.J.
        Feeding dairy cows with “leftovers” and the variation in recovery of human-edible nutrients in milk..
        https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2019.00114
        Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 2019; 3: 114
        • Thornton A.
        • Lee P.
        Publication bias in meta-analysis: Its causes and consequences..
        https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00161-4
        10729693
        J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2000; 53: 207-216
        • VandeHaar M.J.
        • St-Pierre N.
        Major advances in nutrition: Relevance to the sustainability of the dairy industry..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72196-8
        16537960
        J. Dairy Sci. 2006; 89: 1280-1291
        • Weiss W.P.
        Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5026
        22459853
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 2081-2090
        • Weiss W.P.
        Effects of feeding diets composed of corn silage and a corn milling product with and without supplemental lysine and methionine to dairy cows..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15535
        30612798
        J. Dairy Sci. 2019; 102: 2075-2084
        • Wheeler T.
        • Reynolds C.
        Predicting the risks from climate change to forage and crop production for animal feed..
        https://doi.org/10.2527/af.2013-0006
        Anim. Front. 2013; 3: 36-41
        • White R.R.
        • Hall M.B.
        Nutritional and greenhouse gas impacts of removing animals from us agriculture..
        https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1707322114
        Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2017; 114 (E10301)
        • White R.R.
        • Hall M.B.
        • Firkins J.L.
        • Kononoff P.J.
        Physically adjusted neutral detergent fiber system for lactating dairy cow rations. I: Deriving equations that identify factors that influence effectiveness of fiber..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-12765
        28987580
        J. Dairy Sci. 2017; 100: 9551-9568
        • Yang W.Z.
        • Beauchemin K.A.
        Increasing physically effective fiber content of dairy cow diets through forage proportion versus forage chop length: Chewing and ruminal pH..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1379
        19307642
        J. Dairy Sci. 2009; 92: 1603-1615
        • Zebeli Q.
        • Aschenbach J.R.
        • Tafaj M.
        • Boguhn J.
        • Ametaj B.N.
        • Drochner W.
        Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4421
        22365188
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 1041-1056