Advertisement

Nutritive value and storage characteristics of large-round bales of alfalfa-grass or perennial-grass hays treated with a propionic acid–based preservative at elevated application presets

      ABSTRACT

      Objectives

      Our objectives were to evaluate the storage characteristics and changes in nutritive value for large-round bales of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerate L.) or perennial-grass [orchardgrass; tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.); meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.)] hays treated with a propionic acid–based preservative. Applicator delivery presets were increased by 50% relative to standard factory settings, and hays were compared against untreated control hays.

      Materials and Methods

      In Exp. 1, 21 large-round bales (1.2 × 1.5 m; 30.5 ± 1.40% moisture; 88% alfalfa, 12% grass) were produced in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments. Bales either received a propionic acid–based preservative at 1.0 ± 0.41% of wet bale weight (n = 11), or no preservative (n = 10), and were stored outdoors on wooden pallets for 131 d. Experiment 2 was conducted similarly; 26 bales of mixed, perennial-grass hay (1.2 × 1.5 m; 18.4 ± 1.40% moisture) were either treated with a preservative at 0.25 ± 0.104% of wet bale weight (n = 15) or were untreated (n = 11) and stored in an identical manner for 40 d.

      Results and Discussion

      In Exp. 1, application of the preservative reduced maximum internal bale temperatures during the first 30 d of storage compared with untreated control hays (51.8 vs. 60.6°C; P < 0.001); similarly, heating degree days >30°C (HDD) were less for treated hays during the same initial (30-d) time interval (441 vs. 716 HDD; P = 0.001). However, total HDD after 131 d of storage did not differ across treatments (P = 0.426), largely because of the tendency for greater accumulated HDD in treated bales from 31 to 131 d in storage (1,105 vs. 761 HDD; P = 0.085). Final energy density (NEl) was greater (P = 0.030) for treated hays compared with untreated control hays (1.26 vs. 1.21 Mcal/kg DM), but both treatments were depressed from initial prestorage estimates (overall mean = 1.37 Mcal/kg DM). For Exp. 2, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.185) between treatments for any poststorage measure of nutritive value.

      Implications and Applications

      For bales made at 30.5% moisture, application of a propionic acid–based preservative with elevated delivery presets effectively reduced spontaneous heating during the first month of bale storage, and modestly improved poststorage energy density; however, any nutritional benefit from treatment was modest, and energy density was still subject to measurable reductions relative to prestorage estimates.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      LITERATURE CITED

      1. AOAC International. 2019. Official Methods of Analysis, Method #990.03. 21st ed. AOAC International.

      2. Ball, D. M., D. H. Bade, G. D. Lacefield, N. P. Martin, and B. W. Pinkerton. 1998. Minimizing losses in hay storage and feeding. National Forage Information Circular 98–1, Graphic Center.

        • Buckmaster D.R.
        • Heinrichs A.J.
        Losses and quality changes during harvest and storage of preservative-treated alfalfa hay of varying moisture content..
        https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.28346
        Trans. ASAE. 1993; 36: 349-353
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Akins M.S.
        • Kieke B.A.
        Storage characteristics and nutritive value of moist large-round bales of alfalfa or alfalfa–grass hay treated with a propionic acid–based preservative..
        https://doi.org/10.15232/aas.2020-02024
        Appl. Anim. Sci. 2020; 36: 455-470
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Bertram M.G.
        Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large-round bales..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4496
        22192213
        J. Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 340-352
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Coffey K.P.
        • Young A.N.
        • Bertram M.G.
        Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa–orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic acid–based preservative..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6145
        23415527
        J. Dairy Sci. 2013; 96: 2521-2535
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Hoffman P.C.
        Effects of bale moisture and bale diameter on spontaneous heating, dry matter recovery, in vitro true digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hays..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1920
        19448019
        J. Dairy Sci. 2009; 92 (a): 2853-2874
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Hoffman P.C.
        Effects of spontaneous heating on fiber composition, fiber digestibility, and in situ disappearance kinetics of neutral detergent fiber for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1921
        19448020
        J. Dairy Sci. 2009; 92 (b): 2875-2895
      3. Collins, M. 1995. Hay preservation effects on yield and quality. Pages 67–89 in Post-Harvest Physiology and Preservation of Forages. Proc. C-6 CSSA Symposium, Minneapolis, MN. K. J. Moore and M. A. Peterson, ed. CSSA Special Publication 22. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA. https://doi.org/10.2135/cssaspecpub22.c4.

        • Collins M.
        • Paulson W.H.
        • Finner M.F.
        • Jorgensen N.A.
        • Keuler C.R.
        Moisture and storage effects on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa in round bales..
        https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30498
        Trans. ASAE. 1987; 30: 913-917
        • DuBois M.
        • Gilles K.A.
        • Hamilton J.K.
        • Rebers P.A.
        • Smith F.
        Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances..
        https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017
        Anal. Chem. 1956; 28: 350-356
        • Martinson K.
        • Coblentz W.
        • Sheaffer C.
        The effect of harvest moisture and bale wrapping on forage quality, temperature, and mold in orchardgrass hay..
        https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2011.05.003
        J. Equine Vet. Sci. 2011; 31: 711-716
        • Mehta C.R.
        • Patel N.R.
        A network algorithm for performing Fisher’s exact test in r × c contingency tables..
        https://doi.org/10.2307/2288652
        J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 1983; 78: 427-434
      4. NASEM. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/9825.

        • Rotz C.A.
        • Davis R.J.
        • Buckmaster D.R.
        • Allen M.S.
        Preservation of alfalfa hay with propionic acid..
        https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26187
        Appl. Eng. Agric. 1991; 7: 33-40
      5. Rotz, C. A., and R. E. Muck. 1994. Changes in forage quality during harvest and storage. p. 828–868. Forage quality, evaluation, and utilization. Proc. Natl. Conf. on Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilization, Lincoln, NE. G. C. Fahey et al., ed. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA. https://doi.org/10.2134/1994.foragequality.c20.

      6. SAS Institute Inc. 2016. Version 9.4. SAS Institute Inc.

        • Scarbrough D.A.
        • Coblentz W.K.
        • Humphry J.B.
        • Coffey K.P.
        • Daniel T.C.
        • Sauer T.J.
        • Jennings J.A.
        • Turner J.E.
        • Kellogg D.W.
        Evaluation of dry matter loss, nutritive value, and in situ dry matter disappearance for wilting orchardgrass and bermudagrass forages damaged by simulated rainfall..
        https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0604
        Agron. J. 2005; 97: 604-614
        • Sheaffer C.C.
        • Clark N.A.
        Effects of organic preservatives on the quality of aerobically stored high moisture baled hay..
        https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700050019x
        Agron. J. 1975; 67: 660-662
        • Shinners K.J.
        Evaluation of methods to improve storage characteristics of large square bales in a humid environment..
        https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.5218
        Appl. Eng. Agric. 2000; 16: 341-350
      7. Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press.

        • Van Soest P.J.
        • Robertson J.B.
        • Lewis B.A.
        Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition..
        https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
        1660498
        J. Dairy Sci. 1991; 74: 3583-3597
        • Wilcoxon F.
        Individual comparisons by ranking methods..
        https://doi.org/10.2307/3001968
        Biom. Bull. 1945; 1: 80-83